Positive principles of truthfulness, non-violence, harmony, morality and humanistic values were their creed and motto. The main features of the Bhakti movement include-. Rejection of idol worship by many saints. As a matter of fact Bhakti movement had raised its voice against racial discrimination, caste hierarchy and such social differentiations. The thirteen Hindu bhagats whose hymns were entered into the text, were poet saints of the Bhakti movement, and included Namdev, Pipa, Ravidas, Beni, Bhikhan, Dhanna, Jayadeva, Parmanand, Sadhana, Sain, Surdas, Trilochan, while the two Muslim bhagats were Kabir and Sufi saint Farid. , Doris Srinivasan states that the Upanishad is a treatise on theism, but it creatively embeds a variety of divine images, an inclusive language that allows "three Vedic definitions for a personal deity". In Orissa, a new trend was started in Oriya literature due to the Bhakti movement and medieval Vaishnavism of Shri Chaitanya. And it's believed to have come out of South India in the seventh century. (4) A large number of temples and idols of the Hindus had been destroyed by the Muslims and the people had to resort to Bhakti movement. We also learn about the Shankaracharya, salvation, idol worship and much more about the topic. All the prominent leaders played a significant role in the time of medieval India. Get all the important information related to the UPSC Civil Services Exam including the process of application, important calendar dates, eligibility criteria, exam centers etc. The saints and reformers through Bhakti movement reduced the rigours of caste-system and through paved the way for their retention in the fold of Hinduism. In the words of Sheikh- al-Islam Zakariyah Ansari, Sufism teaches how to purify ones self, improve ones morals and build up ones inner and outer life in order to attain perpetual bliss. Thus, according to Sufists, self-purification is the best way to attain eternal bliss. of Venkatam He approached the Indian society to bring unity in God and not differentiate any of them. I found the nine treasures within my body, Guru Granth Saheb the holiest book of the Sikhs which was complied later on included the messages of saints belonging to different sects. image source: hinduhumanrights.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/VIKHANASA-RISHI.jpg. It describes the love of Lord Radha and Krishna. It also describes maintaining unity in society, which begins with worshipping God. This aspect of tenacity and sheer devotion turned many minds to breaking peoples superstitious beliefs about the lower-caste category. Shankaracharya was the first person and scholar who introduced the Bhakti Movement in India. Karma marga Attaining salvation through food deeds like doing services to the needy people; 3.  These were two alternate ways of imagining God during the bhakti movement. Nanaks teachings emancipated his followers to break the social shackles and caste system of Indian society. The high philosophy of the Vedas and Upanishads were very complicated for the common people. Open- mindedness about deciding religious matters. Following are the major changes that took place during and after the Bhakti movement: 1. Richard Kieckhefer and George Bond (1990). Get answers to the most common queries related to the Railway Examination Preparation. 4. Image Guidelines 4. Repetition of the True Name. Preachings through local or regional languages and travelling from place to place for spreading the religious message. But when we talk of Bhakti movement in the context of socio-religious background it has a different connotation. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Rejection of idol worship by many saints Open- mindedness about deciding religious matters. bhakti, (Sanskrit: devotion) in Hinduism, a movement emphasizing the mutual intense emotional attachment and love of a devotee toward a personal god and of the god for the devotee. During the time of Muslim rule in India the Hindu society was full of many social anomalies like rigidity of caste system, irrelevant rituals and religious practices, blind faiths and social dogmas. Bhakti, intense love and devotion, the only way to salvation. The movement tried to loosen the bond of caste. Ranade, in his book, The Rise of Maratha Power, sums up the deep impact of this spiritual awakening. image source: ramanan50.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/65be1-adishankaracharyawithhisdisciples.jpg, The main results of Bhakti movement were the development of vernacular literature, modification of caste exclusiveness, sanctification of family life, elevation of status of women, preaching of humaneness and tolerance, partial reconciliation with Islam, subordination of rites and ceremonies, pilgrimages, fasts etc, learning and contemplation to worship God with love and faith, the limitation of excess of polytheism and the uplift of the nation to a higher level of capacity both of thought and action.. bhakti, (Sanskrit: "devotion") in Hinduism, a movement emphasizing the mutual intense emotional attachment and love of a devotee toward a personal god and of the god for the devotee. Nanaks teachings emancipated his followers to break the social shackles and caste system of Indian society. , The Bhakti movement also witnessed several works getting translated into various Indian languages.  Yet other scholars state that Muslim invasions, their conquering of Hindu Bhakti temples in south India and seizure/melting of musical instruments such as cymbals from local people, was in part responsible for the later relocation or demise of singing Bhakti traditions in the 18th century.  Many of these regional practices have survived into the modern era. Through the Indo-European language connection, early orientalists believed that they were, in a sense, seeing their own ancestry in the antique texts and "antiquated" customs of Indian peoples. The Bhakti saints believed in equality of man and man. Jagannath is the center of the Odisha bhakti movement. 2. began a new chapter in the Indian society. Salient Features of Bhakti Movement 1. Drawing on earlier Tamil secular traditions of erotic poetry as well as royal traditions, bhakti poets applied to the god what would usually be said of an absent lover or of a king. Account Disable 12. Both consciously and unconsciously the ideals of Islam produced a benevolent effect upon the minds of a section of Hindus and fostered the growth of a liberal attitude. It pointed out the virtues of contentment and self control. The concept was only to propel the Indian society to devote their life for the sake of love, devotion, and equity. ; The origin of Bhakti is traced in Vedas, but its real development took place after the 7 th  The Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib includes suggestions for a Sikh to perform constant Bhakti.  Scholars have debated whether this phrase is authentic or later insertion into the Upanishad, and whether the terms "Bhakti" and "God" meant the same in this ancient text as they do in the medieval and modern era Bhakti traditions found in India.  According to Sri Krishna, Bhakti yoga is one of the sweetest path to know the "self" and to reach to the ultimate truth. Please read the description below to learn about their work and contribution. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. It was a religious reform movement during medieval times which emphasized single-minded intense devotion to God. Many people suggest that Ramanuja travelled from Chola to Mysore and established the Vaishnav group before their death. The religion itself was monopolized by the Brahmins who themselves led a degenerated and corrupt moral life. the devotee and the devotee is eager to meet his beloved (God). Copyright 10. Content Filtration 6. Their efforts helped in the promotion o Answer: Only one God exists. "The main results of Bhakti movement were the development of vernacular literature, modification of caste exclusiveness, sanctification of family life, elevation of status of women, preaching of humaneness and tolerance, partial reconciliation with Islam, subordination of rites and ceremonies, pilgrimages, fasts etc, learning and contemplation to It is perhaps far-fetched to say that Akbars broad outlook was on account of the impact of the Bhakti movement. The Muslims first arrived in India in the 8th century AD. The Hindus realised that it was difficult to drive away the Muslim rulers and Muslims from India. They brought necessary. within the body the puja-leaves. Image Source: krishna.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/LordCaitanyaChanting.jpg. Therefore, popular dissatisfaction against the existing social religious evils was a major catalyst behind the spread of Bhakti movement all over India for a long period of time. The concept was only to propel the Indian society to devote their life for the sake of love, devotion, and equity. The movement which emphasized primarily these ideas was the Bhakti movementdevotion to God. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  Originating in Tamilakam during 6th century CE, it gained prominence through the poems and teachings of the Vaishnava Alvars and Shaiva Nayanars before spreading northwards. Their efforts helped in the promotion of Bhakti poems, songs and mantras. Answer: The Saiva Nayanars and Vaishnava Alvars founded the Bhakti movement. Various poems were compiled as Alvar Arulicheyalgal or Divya Prabhandham, developed into an influential scripture for the Vaishnavas. The Muslim rulers in general wanted to enforce the Islamic laws on the Hindus. There was a good deal of bitter men between the two communities i.e. Saundarya Lahari, written in Sanskrit by Adi Shankara, was translated into Tamil in the 12th century by Virai Kaviraja Pandithar, who titled the book Abhirami Paadal. Shankaracharya was a great scholar who contributed his life to this movement. For example. bringing about reforms in Hinduism and developing harmonious relations between the Hindus and the Muslims. The movement was inspired by many poet-saints, who championed a wide range of philosophical positions ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita to absolute monism of Advaita Vedanta.. Self-Surrender. UPSC Prelims Previous Year Question Paper. , The movement started with the Shaiva Nayanars and the Vaishnava Alvars, who lived between 5th and 9th century CE. The status of women received more importance. Their efforts ultimately helped spread bhakti poetry and ideas throughout India by the 12th18th century CE.. Later on, the movement took a new direction by evolving the devotion to God, i.e., Lord Krishna. The Bhakti saints tried to generate an environment of good will between the Hindus and the Muslims. The Bhakti movement was fundamentally monotheistic, with adherents worshipping a single personal God who may have aform (saguna) or be formless (nirguna). TheBhakti saints, including Ramanuja, Chaitanya, Jaidev, Kabir, Ramanand, believed in the unity of God. Adultery and sodomy were also discouraged. Content Filtration 6. An objection to blind faith, ceremonies, norms and rituals. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. There were two broad Sufi orders: Bashara - Those who obeyed Islamic laws. According to the Bhakti saints, individuals can realise God via devotion and personal effort. Some of the main principles of Bhakti Movement are given below God is one All men are equal Give up caste practices Devotion is more important than rituals.  In verses 6.31 through 6.47 of the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna (Incarnation of Vishnu), the source of everything, describes bhakti yoga and loving devotion, as one of the several paths to the highest spiritual attainments. Disclaimer 8. Condemnation of rituals, ceremonies and blind faith. HistoryDiscussion.net All rights reserved. In this article, we will learn about the features of the Bhakti Movement in Medieval India. Although, his lessons greatly impacted the Indian society that still enchanted Kabir Chaura Varanasi. This helped to bring the two communities nearer. In Rig Veda Samhita, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chhandyoga Upanishad, Katha and Kausitaki Upanishad, the word Bhakti has been referred to several times. From 8th century A.D. to 15th century A.D. this movement gathered its momentum in the south. It also helped to harmonise the conflicting interests. What were the main features of Bhakti movement? The other prominent feature of Bhakti movement was its emphasis on Bhakti or devotion to God as the only means to achieve salvation. Goswami Tulsidas wrote his writings in the Awadhi language. Bhakti movement deals with the Indian response to face a new challenge that appeared in the form of Islamic religion. To be specific, the impact of Bhakti movement was felt in all spheres of Hinduism. 3. Brotherhood: Plagiarism Prevention 5. Jill Mordaunt et al, Thoughtful Fundraising: Concepts, Issues, and Perspectives, Routledge. Complete surrender alone leads to salvation. The main objective was to unite efforts through cross-sectoral coordination among various ministries and programmes, with the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) serving as the nodal agency. The movement tried to instila sense of piety in the peoples daily lives. 4. He used to enchant songs and poems for Lord Krishna, resulting in an uprising in Vaishnavism. Believed in Non-violence (Ahimsa) Thus Bhakti was superior to Gnana or knowledge and Karma, or Action. I suffer. Causes for the Origin of Bhakti Movement. Promotion of regional languages of the common people: In place of Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian, the Bhakti saints preached through the medium of local languages which could be understood very easily. According to conclusion of all the revealed scriptures, by constantly chanting the holy names of the Lord Krishna, Lord Shiva and Devi or Adi Para Shakti (in their any form) one can achieve all perfection, even in this Dark Age of Kali. They emphasized the virtues of love and devotion, brotherhood and equality etc. He who has highest Bhakti (love, devotion) of Deva (God), Repeating the actual name. Terms of Service 7. Bhakti or devotion for the Almighty was the central theme of this movement. The Bhakti movement also led to the prominence of the concept of female devotion, of poet-saints such as Andal coming to occupy the popular imagination of the common people along with her male counterparts. Bhakti, intense love and devotion, the sole thanks to salvation. Bhakti movement swept over India in the east and north since the 15th century. Account Disable 12. Under the impact of the Muslim rule, the Hindus had suffered a lot materially, morally and spiritually.  Get subscription and access unlimited live and recorded courses from Indias best educators. Jaidev was a Sanskrit poet of the 12th century, famous for Gita Govindas poem. 2.  It is the same Brahman, but viewed from two perspectives, one from Nirguni knowledge-focus and other from Saguni love-focus, united as Krishna in the Gita. The movement started in the 9th century A.D. by Shankaracharya which continued up to 16th century A.D. by a number of Hindu devotees, preachers and religious reformers. It is derived from the Sanskrit root word Bhaja whose literal meaning is to utter. I swear by Rama. It is not the way of worship but the love of a selfless devotee of pure heart that matters for Whoever offers to me with devotion, a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or water I accept (IX, 26). One should accept a genuine spiritual master (Guru), and under him or her constantly practice the activities of Bhakti yoga to achieve the highest perfection of life. It promoted the need of providing social services to the underprivileged and needy. , According to Wendy Doniger, the nature of Bhakti movement may have been affected by the "surrender to God" daily practices of Islam when it arrived in India. Muslim ideas of surrender to God may have influenced Hindu ideas of bhakti from the start, and later poet-saints such as Kabir (14401518) introduced Sufi (mystical) elements from Islam. Because such knowledge might be obtained through a teacher or guru, the Bhakti movement placed a high value on obtaining authentic knowledge through a guru.  According to Pande, the psychological impact of Muslim conquest may have initially contributed to community-style bhakti by Hindus. Updates? The movement has traditionally been considered an influential social reformation in Hinduism in that it provided an individual-focused alternative path to spirituality regardless of one's birth or gender. A person was free to choose his ways and means to worship a god.  Karel Werner notes that Bhatti (Bhakti in Pali) has been a significant practice in Theravada Buddhism, and states, "there can be no doubt that deep devotion or bhakti / Bhatti does exist in Buddhism and that it had its beginnings in the earliest days". In Gods sight, everyone is comparable. Condemnation of rituals, ceremonies and blind faith. The movement further divided the Hindu society. Some healing touch was needed. The movement attempted to break the bonds of caste, A spirit of harmony among many segments of society and religion was encouraged, The terrible practise of Sati suffered a setback, and the position of women was elevated, Under the influence of the Bhakti movement, several kings embraced liberal religious policies, The movement sparked an awareness among Hindus and Muslims about the futility of ritualism and superstitions, The feeling of respect for the differences between the two religions philosophies and practices evolved, The movement promoted religious tolerance, The holy book of the Sikhs, Guru Granth Sahib, which was subsequently compiled, includes messages from saints of all religions. So under the impact of the new movement both sides started making efforts for coming closer to each other. As a movement, it emphasized on the mutual intense emotional attachment and love of a devotee toward a personal god and of the god for the devotee. It was a challenge to the Hindu religious leaders. Question 3: What were the main features of Bhakti? They began to mix together on the basis of equality. It emphasized earning of wealth through hard work and honest means. Sufism is an old religious sect of Islam. Christopher Key Chapple (Editor) and Winthrop Sargeant (Translator), Note: The earliest arrival dates are contested by scholars. Pure devotion to a deity was most important aspect. Omissions? However, the real development of Bhakti took place in South India between the 7th and the 12th centuries through the teachings of poet saints known as Alvars and Nayanar whose hymns were collected and compiled in the 10th century.  Nirguna Brahman was the concept of the Ultimate Reality as formless, without attributes or quality. , The writings of Sankaradeva in Assam however, not only included an emphasis on the regional language, but also led to the development of an artificial literary language called Brajavali. Its results have deeply influenced contemporary religious and cultural trends in India. , John Guy states that the evidence of Hindu temples and Chinese inscriptions from the 8th century CE about Tamil merchants, presents Bhakti motifs in Chinese trading towns, particularly the Kaiyuan Temple (Quanzhou).  Other saints such as Dadu Dayal championed the similar social movement, a community that believed in Ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings, social equality, and vegetarian kitchen, as well as mutual social service concepts.  Kabir, a poet-saint for example, wrote in Upanishadic style, the state of knowing truth:. The Bhakti movement started in the South in response to the conquest of northern India by Muslim rulers. In India, Sufism adopted many native Indian concepts such as yogic postures, music and dance.  He taught, states Jon Mayled, that the most important form of worship is Bhakti. 4. Although, the, played a vital role in the revolution of medieval India. 6. The feeling of appreciation of the difference between the thought and practices of the two religions emerged. The word Bhakti is a very familiar word in the Hindu religious system. They stressed human qualities and moral attitudes. They believed in a formless and shapeless God which was the Supreme power. It also describes maintaining unity in society, which begins with worshipping God.